广西高校图书馆东盟小语种书刊招标采购工作浅议.pdf

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OedipusComplex(恋母情结)、Pandora'sbox(灾祸的根源)、 Achilles'heel(致命弱点)、Damoclessword(无时不在的危 险)等。( 2 )宗 教 信 仰 。在西方国家,《圣经》故事广为流传, 家喻户晓。《圣经》是西方文明的基石,出自《圣经》与基督 教相关的人名大量进入英语词汇也就不足为奇了。比如: oldAdam。Adam是上帝创造了天地后,用泥土做的第一个 男人;接着上帝用Adam的肋骨做出第一个女人Eve。上帝 将两人安置在伊甸园内生活。受蛇的引诱,他们偷吃了禁 果;从此能看见双方的身体,分 辨善 恶。 此 事 触 怒 了 上 帝 , 把两 人逐出伊甸园。 Adam被喻为“人类原始的罪恶本性”, oldAdam意思是“本性的罪恶”。还有aSolomon(智者)、 DavidandJonathan(莫逆之交)、Cain(内讧、叛乱)等。( 3 )历 史人物。某个历史人物的人名进入英语词汇要么让他(她) 名垂青史,要么使他(她)遺臭 万年。他们有的是生杀予夺 的当权者,有的是普普通通的平民百姓。平民如一个叫 Chauvin的士兵,他是拿破仑的狂热崇拜者,极力鼓吹以武 力征服其他民族。他的名字构成了单词chauvinism即大民 族主义。PeterRachman(1919~1962)是伦敦的一个房东,他 绞尽脑汁盘剥房客;于是就有了rachmanism拉克曼式的剥 削,特指房东对房客的肆意剥削和胁迫。HarnyHoudini (1874~1926)是出生于匈牙利的美国魔术师,他能从各种 镣铐和容器中脱身;于是他的名字houdini就有了“绝妙的 遁术”之意。AnnyOakley(1860~1926)是一位神枪手;她能 在30步远的地方打穿纸牌的狭窄边缘。美国人在看比赛时 持优待券入场,检票后票上留一小孔,使人想起她神枪穿 孔,于是人们把“优待券 、免费券”叫作 AnnyOakley。左右历 史人物的名字之所以能进入英语词汇,当然与他们的所作 所为紧密相关。MaryI(1516~1558)1553年登基,为了扭转 国家向新教的转变,残酷镇压新教徒,将300多新教徒活活 烧死在火刑柱上。于是有了“BloodMary”血腥玛丽酒。H· C·Hoover(1895~1972)是美国第 31任总统。任职期间,美国 处于经济大萧条时期。于是人们就把失业者和穷人聚集的 简陋城镇称为hooverville(胡佛村)。( 4 )文 学作品。文学作品 中某些人物个性分明,他们的名字就成了某类人群的代名 词。如:Lolita洛丽塔,代指性早熟的女孩。这一说法源自 VladimirNabokov(1899~1977)1958年出版的小说Lolita。 Cinderella是格林童话《灰姑娘》(Cinderella)的主人公。她在 家中受继母和异母姐妹的虐待;后来在一位神仙的帮助 下,参加了王子的舞会。王子爱上了她,并根据她掉下的水 晶鞋找到她,与 她 成 婚 。Cinderella现在比喻“优点或美丽未 被承认的人”或“一举成名的人”。还有出自莎士比亚作品, 我们耳熟能详的Hamlet(优柔寡断的人)、Shylock(贪得无 厌的人)、Iago(阴险毒辣的人)等。 专有名词普通化,是一种有力的构词手段和语义表现 方式。语言体现了人们对客观世界的认识和态度;它是使 用某一语言的民族的文化载体,记载了使用语言的民族历 史的发展过程。透过英语人名这个语言层面,我们可以进 入英美国家的历史长河,见识它些许风貌。 参考文献: [1]新牛津英汉双解大词典[M].上海:上海教育外语出版社,2007. [2]杜宏丽.探析英语中源于人名的习语及其文化内涵[J].黑龙江教 育学院学报,2010,( 29). [3]张剑屏.浅议英语人名习语的来源[J].成都教育学院学报,2005, (3). [4]张昀霓.浅谈英语人名的文化意蕴[J].湖南第一师范学报,2004, (12). ImperialChinahasalwaysbeenapatriarchalsociety, wherewomenwererestrictedtotheinnerquartersofthe houseandhadlimitedacces toeducation.Beforethe establishmentofthePRCin1949,inruralChina,evenmen weremostlyilliterate.Womeninruralareas,therefore,largely sufferedfromtraditionalConfucianideologies.Thediscoveryof women'sscriptprovesthat,althoughmostwomendidnothave agoodeducation,theystillrespondedtotheirhardlivesin theirownwayandeven,literally,intheirownwords.Forwom- enwhohadbeensufferingunderthepatriarchalsociety, women'sscript,whichoriginatedandflourishedinJiangyong County,wasanimportantvehiclewomenusedtoexpress themselves.Sincetheywrotemanykindsoftextsinwomen's script,inthisessay,Ichoosethefolktalesandfolksongsthat Jiangyongwomentranscribedintowomen'sscriptasexamples topresentapictureofhowthesewomenrespondedtotheir socialsituation,andwhattheybelievedtobetheirsalvation fromthehardship.IshallarguethatJiangyongwomenhadvi- sionsofsavingandamelioratingthemselves,however,sadly, theyreactedpassivelytotheirsufferingsandmostlyresigned Women'sScript:TheWindowtoFemale ResistancetoaMaleWorld 匡宁馨 (麦吉尔大学,魁北克省 加拿大 H3A0G4) Abstract:Theinventionofwomen'sscriptwasaresultofthesuppressionwomensufferedintraditionalChinesesociety.As ConfucianismbeingtheleadingideologyinChina,womendidnothavechancetogetthorougheducationinsuchapatriarchal world.Women'sscript,withitscharactersdevelopedfromstandardChinese,openedawindowforwomeninJiangyongarea.It servedasamethodofexpressingwomen'sthoughts,andasawaytoeducatetheirdaughters.Fromdifferentgenresofliterature writteninwomen'sscript,wecanunderstandthesocialconstrictionsofwomenandhowtheyrespondedtothem.Also,wecanget apictureofthesalvationfromthesecrucialrestrictionsthatJiangyongwomenbelievedin.Keywords:Women'sscript;femalere- sistance 中图分类号:G644 文献标志码:A 文章编号:1674-9324(2013)03-0169-05 【专题研讨】 169- - themselvestotheadversitytheyunderwentinreallife. AsintherestofChina,onlyafewliteratemenin JiangyongstudiedandwroteinstandardChinesecharacters, andtheirwayofwritingwasreferredtointhecountryas “men'sscript”(Idema3).Sincelearningmen'sscriptwasnot practicalforwomen,Jiangyongwomeninventedakindof scriptforthemselves,whichtheycalledthewomen'sscriptto contrastwithmen'sscript.Itwashardforwomentoparticipate intheliteraryrealmatthattime,aswomenwereconfinedto theinnerquartersandlackedtheexperienceandknowledge towriteasmostelitemendid.Forgentrywomenwhohadthe economicpowerandapprovalfromtheirmalerelatives,such asfathersandelderbrothers,theycouldhavetheopportunity toobtainfameasfamouswomenwriters.Therefore,atthat time,“mostwritingsofwomenwereauthoredbyelitewomen fromtheJiangnanarea,especiallythegreatcitiesofSuzhou andHangzhou”(Idema3).However,forcommonfamilieswho livedinJiangyong,womendidnotevenhavetheopportunity togetformaleducation,nottomentionbecomingfemalewrit- ers.Asaresult,theycreatedwomen'sscriptbythemselvesand forthemselves.Wecanseethecreationofwomen'sscriptasa representationofthesewomen'sattempttoparticipateinthe patriarchalsociety,andtocementoftheirownalternativeso- cialstructuresandnetworks.Italsoimpliesawil ofthese womentofightforthemselves.Women'sscriptpresentsuswith peasantwomenspeakingtheirownmindsandintheirown words(Idema3).Becausemostmenignoredwomen'sscript, thetextsinwomen'sscriptareunmediatedbyotherforces. Therefore,theyaremoretrustworthyastheyconveythetrue feelingsofJiangyongwomen.AsChiangsuggestsinthe introductiontohisbookonwomen'sscript,“WeTwoKnow theScript;WeHaveBecomeGoodFriends”,“scriptsused withanemphasisontheirsoundfunctionareusedbypeople withlowersocialstatus,areusedformoreinformalfunctions, representlowerdiglossicformsoflanguage,andaremore closelyrelatedtowomen”(xvii).Althoughwomen'sscriptwas originatedfromChinesecharacters,unlikethemen'sscript, whichissemantic,women'sscriptwritessound,notmeaning (Idema4).Thefactthatitisnotsemanticmakeswomen's scriptcompletelydifferentfromstandardChineseoranyother dialects;italsoindicatesthatwomen'sscriptisaninitiative thatruralwomentook.Women'sscriptalsousesanewfont thatgreatlydiffersfromChinesecharacters.Itisindiamond shape,whichmakesthescriptmorelikegraphsthancharac- ters.Thefactthateverywomen'sscriptcharacterlookslikea tiltedChinesecharactersuggeststhatJiangyongwomen createdthescriptbasedontraditionalscript,buttheyalso daredtorecreatetraditions,whichwasnotconventionalinim- perialpatriarchalChina.Besidestheinnovativemoveofthese women,thedaintyfontofWomen'sScriptalsosuggeststhe aestheticsofJiangyongwomen.Sincewomen'sscriptwasnota secretcode,thefonttheyusedwasaproductofwomen'sown artistictaste.Theultimatelifegoalforwomenatthattimewas tobeinaccordancetomen'saesthetics.Theboundfeetand makeupthewomenputonwereal becausetheyaccorded withthepatriarchaltraditions.AlthoughJiangyongwomen continuedtoboundtheirfeetandwereseenasasubordinate totheirhusbands,thefontofwomen'sscriptstillwasarepre- sentationofwomen'sownaesthetics,andthus,itsuggestsa smallstepwomenmadetotaketheirstandinthemaleworld. Yet,eventhoughwomenwantedtovoicetheirownphilosophy ofbeautyandtookasteptowardsindependence,theycould notdepartfromthepatriarchalworld.Textswritteninwomen's scriptaremostlyinseven-syllablelines,whichwasoneofthe mosttypicalstructuresofChineseliterature.Womenwere stronglyinfluencedbytraditionalconventions.Thismightalso bebecauseofthefactthatthesewomenwereilliterate,andall theyknewaboutliteraturewasthemosttypicalstructure. Therefore,evenwhentheywrotepersonalletterstoeachoth- er,almostal ofthemwerecomposedintheseven-syllable structure.Itisapparentthatwomengainedaclearerimageof themselvesthroughtheinventionofwomen'sscript.Theyalso madeeffortsindisplayingthisimprovementinself-conception throughthenewfontandthemereattemptatreadingand writing.However,theywerestil trappedinthepatriarchal conventions,anditispossiblethattheywerenotawareofit, and,asaresult,wasnotabletodoanythingbuttoobeythe rulessincetheylackedtheexperienceandknowledge.Notonly waswomen'sscriptnotasecret,butitcanalsobeseenasa proudgesturethesewomenmade.Althoughsomewritingswere notintendedtobeseenbymen,longsongsoffelicitationsent tothebridebyfriendsandrelativesafterherwedding,werea matterofprideandwerepubliclydisplayed“(Idema4).The balladsandstorieswomenchosetotranscribeintowomen's scriptwerealsopubliclydisplayedandwerenothiddenfrom men.Infact,manyofthesefolksongsandfolktaleswerevery popularintherestofChina.LiteratemenintheJiangyong areamighthavereadthosestoriesaswell,butindifferent versions.Thereweretwomaincategoriesofballadsthatwere transcribedbythesewomen.Oneofthemfocusedonpractical adviceorwarningsforwomen,suchasfolksongsonembroi- deryandballadsofferingmentalpreparationfortheyoung brideonherfuturelifeasawifeandamother;anothercate- goryfocusedonideologicalorspiritualimpact,includingfolk- taleslikethoseintheModelBiographiesbyBanZhaoand fictionwithamoralmessageattheend. IntraditionalJiangyong,womenrarelyparticipatedin workoutdoors;instead,theyspenttheirtimeonhousehold choresandonspinning,weaving,andembroidery.Theselatter activitiesoftenweregroupactivities,duringwhichoneofthe womenmightrelievetheboredomoftherepetitivetaskby chantingsongsandballadsinwomen'sscripts (Idema5). Therefore,folksongsthatusedtheseactivitiesassubjectswere highlypopularamongwomen.Someofthesefolksongswere composedbythesewomen,whilemostofthemweresongsthat werewell-knownnarrativesthatthesewomenheardfrom travellingstorytellersorweresongsthatwerepassedonfrom mothertodaughter.OneofthefolksongsChiangincludedin 【专题研讨】 170- - hisbookwasXiuhuage(embroiderysong.)Thetextofthis folksongdescribedtenkindsofdesigns,manyofwhichwere oftenfoundonlocalembroideries.Folksongsoftenhave practicalcontent,andfolksongslikeXiuhuagewereoftensung whenwomenweredoingthedomesticchoresthatarede- scribedinthesong.Itwasawayofrelievingboredom,andalso aproofofwomengivingintothetraditionaldifferentiationof laborbetweenmaleandfemale.Folksongswithpractical subjectssuggestwomen'sacceptanceoftheircurrentstatus, andtheirwillingnes toproperlyfulfil theirrolesas daughters,wives,andmothers.Theembroiderydesignsde- scribedinXiuhuagenotonlyshowtheimageofwomen'sreal life,butalsorepresenttheirwishesandthoughtsaboutthat traditionalsociety.Theymentioncharactersinpopularfolktales suchasLiSanniangandHanXiangzi,whowerewellknown amongpeopleinratherlowerclasseslikepeasants,butcould hardlybecategorizedashighculture.Xiuhuagealsoincludes theimageryofhappychildrenandperformanceoffilialpiety, whichwereconsideredassomeofthemaindutiesofwomen. Thereisnomentionoftheimagesofbooks,ink,orotherob- jectsthatwerecommonlyseeningentryandliterati households.Thefactofwomenchosetotranscribefolksongs likeXiuhuageimpliesthattheseactivitiesandobjectsinthe songappealedtowomen;italsoimpliesthattheseactivities arewhataJiangyongwomanshouldbethinkingabout.There isnosuggestionofwomenpursuingtheirowngoals.Rather, folksongsthatweretranscribedinwomen'sscriptsuggestthat theonlygoalofJiangyongwomenwastobegooddaughters, wives,andmothers.Sincethesesongswereselectedbywomen forwomen,itistruethatthesewomenknewwhattheywere supposedtodo,andtheyacceptedtherealityevenifitmeant enduringthehardshipstheirmothershadendured.Therefore, folksongsareusuallyeducationalandcanhelpwiththese women'sdailylives.Theymayalsobeeducationalinthatthey containusefulknowledgeincondensedandeasily memorizableform(Chiang80).Aspracticalasthefolksongs, Jiangyongwomenfullyunderstoodandacceptedthefactthat theywerelivinginapatriarchalworld,andtherewasnoneed ornousetomakeattemptstochangeit. Folktales,ontheotherhand,donotusuallycontaincon- tentthatpractical.FolktalesJiangyongwomenchoseto transcribeintowomen'sscriptsareoftenstoriesthatmake suggestionsandadviceaboutreallifeorintheafterlife. Womenwereanavidaudiencefortravelingstorytellersfrom whomtheylearnedfolktales.Thelongesttextsinthewomen's scriptliteraturewerefolktales,somereaching808lines(Chi- ang78).Thesestoriespresentedanarrowrangeofpositive andnegativerolemodelsforwomen.physicaldiscomfortand theubiquitousdangerofrape”(Idema8).Themostpraised rolemodelforawomanwasloyaltytoherhusband,evenwith longyearsofabsenceofthehusband.Oneofthemostpopular folktaleswasthetaleofMengjiangnu,whichisstillawidely knownstorytoday.TheWomen'sScriptversion “focusescon- sistentlyontheinnerfeelingsoftheheroine,fromherearliest yearlingsforlovetohergriefuponretrievingherhusband's bonesandtakingthembacktoherhome,where'eachnight shesleptalongsideherhusband'sbones,/Andneverinher lifedidshemarryanotherman'(CambridgeHistory406). Jiangyongwomenoftenmadechangestothestorieswhenthey transcribedthemintowomen'sscript.Theydidsotosuggest thebestvirtuesandwaysoflivinginJiangyongCounty,and alsointhebroaderpatriarchalsociety,forthesewomen.Inthe caseofthetaleofMengjiangnu,thereareotherversionsthat endwithMengjiangnuandherhusbandreunitinginthe afterlife;also,thereareversionsthatwiththeFirstEmperorof QinfallinginlovewithMengjiangnuandbringingherintothe palace.However,Jiangyongwomenchose(orchanged)theend- ingthatconcludedwithMengjiangnunevermarryinganother man.Itisapparentthatthisfolktaleintendstosetarolemodel forwomen,whichisthecompletechasteloyaltytoone'shus- band.Beingwidowedandnotremarryinghasalwaysbeenthe moststronglystressedvirtueinimperialChina.Itisoneofthe highlypraisedConfuciantenetsthatthehusbandisthe dominantfigureinthefamily,andthewifeissupposedto serveherhusband,and,afterthedeathofthehusband,con- tinuetoserveherin-laws.Therefore,thewomen'sscriptver- sionofMengjiangnupresentsapositiverolemodelforwomen andexplicitlysuggeststheactofnotremarryingasoneofthe mostimportantvirtues. Besidesfolktalesthatsuggestvirtues,Jiangyongwomen alsotranscribedfolktalesthatcontainwarnings.Oneofthe mostwell-knownstoriesisthatofLiangShanboandZhu Yingtai.Thewomen'sscriptversion ”maybereadasgivingthe sensethathoweverthoroughlyaclevergirlmaybeabletode- ceiveaman,intheendherbodywil revealthetruth,and thatonlymiserycanfollowtheattempttojoinmalesociety (“Cambridge”410).Itintendstowarnwomenthattheyshould notmakeanyeffortstoparticipateinthemaleworld,includ- inglearningmen'sscript.ThroughfolktaleslikeLiangZhu,we canseethatwomenwerereactingpassivelytothesuppression oftheirgoalsanddreams.Theytendedtogiveintotheircur- rentsituationsandurgedotherstodothesame.Inorderto explicitlywarnthesewomen,theychosetotranscribethever- sionofLiangZhuinwhichLiangShanboandZhuYingtaidie andarelaterrebornintoapairofmandarinducks,even thoughthereareversionsofthestoryinwhichthe star-crossedloversfinallyuniteinmarriage(“Cambridge” 410).Inthisway,thestoryshowsthat “anyattempttocross thelinebetweenthesexesisfraughtwithdanger”(Idemaand Grant564),whichfurtherdemonstratesthatJiangyongwomen wereresignedtotheiradversities;althoughtheyfullyrealized theirsufferingfromthediscriminationoftheirsocial ideologicalenvironment,theyacceptedthetraditionalhierar- chicalsegregationofsexes(“Cambridge”398). AlthoughmostfolktalesandfolksongssuggestJiangyong womenispassiveresponsetotheirsufferings,thereis,atthe 【专题研讨】 171- - sametime,acompleteabsenceofstoriesinwhichamalepro- tagonistassertshismanhood,“eitherbydefeatingaforeign aggressorandsafeguardingChina'sborderswithhismartial skills,orbyimpressinglargenumberofwomenwithhisliter- aryskillsorpersonalcharms”(“Cambridge”398).Thisimplies thatthesewomenwerenotwhollysubordinatetomaledomi- nance.Storiesthatpraisemaledominancedidnotinterest Jiangyongwomen,sotherewasnoneedtotranscribetheminto women'sscript.Unliketraditionalvirtuouswomen,whosemost importantjobwastoservethehusbanda
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